Effects of Planning and Reflection on College Students Well-being and Self-efficacy


College students are faced with many stressors such as; academics, finances, athletic commitments, and maintaining relations. The present quasi-experiment looks at how planning and reflection could positively affect student's wellbeing and self-efficacy when faced with daily stressors. Previous research suggests planning can increase goal achievement and relieve anxiety. Three college level sociology classes were used in the quasi-experiment, one as a control and the other two as an experimental group. All students were given a pre/posttest consisting of questions about demographics, well-being, general self-efficacy, and planning/reflection practices. The intervention of the experimental group consisted of the use of a customized daily planner/ weekly reflection design for six weeks. The students in the experimental group choose from four different planners created by students in SO308; they also did six weekly Emotional Intelligence seminars. The control groups kept their normal routines and did not receive any intervention. It is expected that if the experimental group uses the planner and reflection effectively throughout the six weeks, they will have a higher post/pre-test score change in their well-being and self-efficacy compared with the control group. The hypothesis will be tested using ANOVA through SPSS. Due to COVID-19 there may be an overall decrease in the student's well-being, but the hypothesis holds. It is our expectation that reflection and planning may lighten the negative impact of the pandemic.

Class Standing



Sociology and Anthropology

Faculty Advisor

Yan Ciupak

Faculty Advisor Email





Lillie Moaier is a McNair Scholar