Journal Title/Source

Geographical Bulletin

Publication Date




Issue (if applicable)


Page Numbers


Document Type

Journal Article


Earth, Environmental and Geographical Sciences


Human communities depend upon a myriad of ecosystem goods and services, which are produced by and depend on natural environmental processes occurring at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Land-use policy seldom recognizes the importance of these services or the environmental processes generating these services. This study examined the degree to which ecosystem services and supporting environmental processes are regulated at two United States municipal levels: city and county. Several ecosystem services but few environmental processes are regulated to some extent. We identified policy needs for environmentally sensitive karst features, aquifer recharge, groundwater quality, plant and animal populations, and flood mitigation. We propose policy instruments that could help sustain regional ecosystem goods and services and conclude with planning ideas to cover these gaps, including measures from other karst regions that could support and enhance sustainable land planning and policy development.