Date of Award

6-2018

Degree Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science

Department

Health and Human Performance

Program

Exercise Science

First Advisor/Chairperson

Dr. Marguerite Moore

Abstract

ABSTRACT

STUDENT ATHLETES’ PERCEPTION OF SMARTPHONE USE AND ITS EFFECTS ON SLEEP QUALITY, ANXIETY, AND DEPRESSION

By

Alexis Schaefer

This study investigated the perception of smartphone use and its perceived effects on sleep quality, depression, and anxiety among NCAA collegiate student athletes (SA). One hundred and ninety one Northern Michigan University SA’s completed an online questionnaire consisting of original content and select components from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). Pearson product moment correlations examined relationships between demographic information and perception questions. Correlations examined relationships between perception questions and the corresponding health based questionnaire (i.e. “Do you believe your smartphone use has increased or decreased your feelings of anxiety” and the GAD-7). Results indicated that there was a moderate correlation (r=0.513) between the perception of smartphone use increasing depression and the perception of smartphone use increasing anxiety. In conclusion, excessive smartphone use, specifically pre-bedtime smartphone use is a stressor that negatively affects sleep. While this technological device continues to evolve and become increasingly present in all aspects of human life, the chances of negative consequences also continue to increase. Athletes must gain a deeper understanding of healthy sleep and how it can be optimized for maximal performance.

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