Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Health and Human Performance


Exercise Science (MS)

First Advisor/Chairperson

Randall Jensen


The American overhand football throw is a highly scrutinized position because of all the different kinds of stress both physical and psychological that are put onto those players. The current study sought to develop a formula using psycho-emotional and physical variables to predict the performance of an American overhand football throw under stressful/non-stress situations. Participants were tested on two days. The stress situation is where tennis balls were thrown, and the subject did not know where they were going to throw. The non-stressed was a 3 step drop without knowing what target they were throwing at and these conditions were covered each day. The first day, the 12 participants completed the first questionnaire, measuring both physical and psychological stress, the first set of 15 throws, and the second questionnaire to measure the same variables. For the next set of 15 throws on that day, the opposite condition was used. The second day, the sequence repeated for questionnaires and for the throws with the stress and non-stressed throws completed in the opposite order. The developed models were able to predict performance at all throwing distances when using a regression analysis of the long, medium, and short throws with stress and non-stress. These models were cross-validated by a paired t-test and correlation. Conclusion: The throws studied we were able to predict ability to hit a target under both stress and non-stress situations. Different variables were influential each in condition, but Borg scale was the most common in the study.

Access Type

Open Access