This essay establishes a baseline for measuring environmental change caused by the influx of Europeans beginning in the seventeenth century. In it the author describes the natural forces including volcanism, sedimentation, geologic metamorphism, and glaciation as natural forces that shaped the landscape of the Upper Peninsula and created deposits of minerals. He uses survey notes, travel accounts and journals to describe flora and fauna prior to large-scale commercial exploitation
"The Upper Peninsula As It Was: What the Europeans Encountered,"
Upper Country: A Journal of the Lake Superior Region: Vol. 4, Article 1.
Available at: https://commons.nmu.edu/upper_country/vol4/iss1/1