Document Type



As biomechanists, improving technique with an aim of injury prevention is an essential application of biomechanics in recreational runners. A mixed sample of elite and recreational runners, belonging to either sex, could give useful movement patterns of movement. In order to obtain any useful pattern of movement we would like to know if we should use an elite or a recreational sample as a reference also differencing in sex. A total of 48 runners participated in this study: 12 female amateurs, 38 male amateurs and 8 male professionals. Running gait parameters and sagittal plane kinematics from the hip, knee and ankle and frontal plane kinematics from the foot were recorded at a selfselected speed for the amateurs and the speed of the elite athlete was adapted to that of the amateurs. Differences in sex were found at the self-selected speed, stride length and hip extension at foot off (p<0,005). Differences in running level were found in the swing phase and in knee flexion at foot contact.