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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of anthropometry and body composition with running economy within a large heterogeneous cohort of runners. Locomotory energy cost was determined in ninety-four healthy male and female endurance runners across a range of performance standards. Various anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken manually and via DXA scans. The relationships between anthropometry and running economy were assessed using independent Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression. Three parameters, normalised neck and calf perimeters and normalised whole body bone mass explained 30% of the variance in locomotory energy cost. Low locomotory energy cost was related solely to parameters indicating relative slenderness of the body.