Implement sports

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to identify the role of humeral elevation of the non-throwing arm in relation to maximum ball velocity (MBV) in unconstrained overarm throws in children aged 12-14. 3D motion analysis was used to investigate the throwing technique of 144 students. The group was classified as ‘skilled’ or ‘less skilled’ based on MBV at release. Joints kinematics and timing of segmental sequencing (SS) based on maximum angular velocity (MAV) were quantified. Humeral elevation of the non-throwing arm had an important role in maximising ball release velocity. It had moderate to good correlation with MBV and MAV of other joints. ‘Skilled’ children were characterized by significantly more humeral elevation, MAV, faster humeral angular motions from an elevated position in the non-throwing arm and better SS in the throwing arm than the ‘less skilled’.