Injury prevention

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to compare collegiate softball pitchers’ mechanics with and without upper extremity pain. Fifty-five collegiate softball pitchers volunteered to participate. Based on a pain history questionnaire, participants were divided into two groups: upper extremity pain, and pain free. Kinematic data were collected on the change-up softball pitch using an electromagnetic tracking system. The group exhibiting upper extremity pain illustrated greater shoulder horizontal abduction at foot contact, and less trunk lateral flexion towards the throwing side at ball release compared to the pain free group. In combination, the authors speculate these injury-prone positions and forces about the shoulder could be the result of improper energy transfer along the kinetic chain.