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The aim of this study was to develop a reliable testing method to measure biomechanical variables that describe sprint cycling performance on a velodrome track, compared to on an ergometer in a laboratory. Seven elite track sprint cyclists performed sprints on an isokinetic ergometer in a laboratory and over half lap distances in a velodrome. Key biomechanical variables characterising sprint cycling were measured. Relatively small differences in the variables were found between the ergometer and track sprints. However the static task constraints of ergometer cycling led the cyclists to adopt a different position which seemed to allow them to increase overall power output and rate of force development. Future research is needed to assess whether the differences in joint angles and crank powers were due to the different environmental and task constraints between the ergometer and the track bicycle sprints.