Motor control

Document Type



This study aimed to investigate changes in technique during a period of learning, in line with three key models of motor learning: Components Model (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), Bernstein’s (1967) observations of freezing and freeing, and Newell’s (1985) stages of learning model. Ten participants with no specific non-dominant arm throwing experience completed a longitudinal learning study. Full body kinematic data was collected at 200 Hz using an automated 3D motion capture system. Results were analysed in line with the key models of motor learning (Roberton & Halverson, 1984; Bernstein, 1967; Newell’s 1985). All the models identify key change point with a session in between each other, therefore, producing support for the idea of a collective variable in motor ‘control’. From an applied perspective the Roberton and Halverson (1984) model provide a useful tool to aid practitioners.