Injury prevention

Document Type



The present study was conducted to describe characteristics of scapular kinematics and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) in baseball pitchers and swimmers. The participants were 16 swimmers, 19 baseball pitchers and 8 non-athletes. Each participant was asked to perform three tasks, arm abduction, shoulder horizontal abduction (HA) and shoulder internal/ external rotation (IR/ER). An electromagnetic tracking device was used to record the 3D data of shoulder complex. The SHR during the arm abduction and the range of motion for shoulder complex were determined for each task. The results showed that swimmers had significantly greater ranges of shoulder HA and scapular upward rotation while pitchers had a significantly greater range of shoulder ER and a significantly smaller range of shoulder IR. There was no obvious difference in SHR between the groups.