Injury prevention

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of ground reaction force (GRF) of the drive and stride leg and kinetics of the throwing arm in high school and collegiate baseball pitchers. Several studies have examined the relationship between GRF and ball velocity, but no one has examined the effect of GRF on maximum shoulder rotation torque (MERT) and maximum elbow valgus torque (MEVT). Understanding this relationship will be important to both enhancing performance and avoiding injury. Data that were previously collected during a pitching evaluation were analyzed. Twenty-two high school pitchers and 13 collegiate pitchers had received a pitching evaluation. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between variables. Only the drive leg medial force (β = .372, p = .015) and stride leg braking force (β = .401, p = .009) were significant predictors of MERT.