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The purpose of this study was to identify key biomechanical parameters that predict throwing distance in elite male javelin throwers. Biomechanical data from 13 male javelin throwers who competed at the 2017 IAAF World Championships were obtained from a freely available IAAF report. A regularised regression model was used to determine the associations between throwing distance and release parameters, whole-body kinematic, and joint-level kinematic data. The model indicated that delivery step distance (r = 0.69), release velocity (r = 0.85), distance between left foot and javelin grip at the beginning of the delivery phase (r = 0.47), and the angle of the support leg’s knee joint at the instance of release (r = 0.56) were all important predictors of throwing distance in elite male javelin throwers at the 2017 IAAF World Championships.