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In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of a 6-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention on stair pain, joint proprioception, and external knee moment in the elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) during stair ascending. A total of 27 elderly patients with KOA participated in our study. Fourteen of the patients were included in the PNF group, and 13 were included in the control group. The WOMAC measures for specific pain and joint motion sense measures were used, and gait test were performed at weeks 0 and 6. After a 6-week PNF intervention, the PNF group showed a decreased “using stairs” pain score, decreased difficulty with “climbing stairs” score, decreased joint kinesthesia threshold, increased knee flexion moment (KFM), and decreased knee adduction moment (KAM) during climbing stairs. We suggest the use of PNF intervention, which relieves joint pain, enhances muscles strength and proprioception recovery, increases KFM, and decreases KAM, in the treatment of KOA in elderly patients.