Modelling / Simulation

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to quantify the peak lumbar joint flexor / extensor moments following changes in torso and breast mass during running using an innovative computer musculoskeletal model. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for a female participant running at 2.6 m/s. An MRI scan of the breasts was used to calculate breast mass and centre of mass location relative to the torso. An OpenSim whole body model was customised with two point-mass segments added to the torso to represent the breasts. Key findings have shown that changes in breast mass can cause peak lumbar flexor / extensors moments to be over or underestimated by up to ~18%. These results suggest that including the mass of the breasts in female specific models, during dynamic activities such as running, is an important aspect that must be considered for future work.