Document Type



The purpose of this study was to identify if shorter backswings off the tee influence the ‘outside-in’ ball impact (i.e. tendency to slice, fade or pull). Participants motion data were obtained on a reduced-size driving range, using a SmartSwing driver club (3D data sampling at 1000 Hz). Findings from a representative sample of the amateur golfers’ population (N=13, 531 swings) indicate a pattern where a shorter backswing reduced the tendency for ‘outside-in’ (-17.8%) while increasing ‘parallel’ (+6.9%) and ‘inside-out’ ball impacts by (+10.8%). For golfers who suffer from repetitive overuse or ageing-related reduced range movement or back pain, shortening the backswing is a viable option when considering safety and risk of injury. The findings can help golf swing coaching, as well as competitive/strategic and recreational aspects of self-management.