Motor Control

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the time-frequency-muscle synergies across different mechanical constraints during pedalling. Eleven experienced cyclists performed three 1-min bouts of pedalling at 90 revolutions per minute: bilateral (250 W), unilateral (125 W) and effective (250 W). Surface electromyographic (EMG) records from eleven lower-limb muscles were used to extract muscle synergies based on linear envelope (LE) or based on time-frequency features (TF). Three LE muscle synergies accounted for a mean variance accounted for (VAF) of 91.0 % ± 2.3, 90.7 % ± 2.4 and 91.6 % ± 2.4, for the bilateral, unilateral and effective pedalling tasks, respectively. When three TF muscle synergies were extracted, similar muscle groupings were obtained. The main results support the neural origin of the motor modularity.