Modelling / Simulation

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to identify the shoulder movement pattern which interacts with a long swing gymnastic movement (Belle). Four (4) national level gymnasts in China performed eight repetitions of movement (Belle), on the middle of parallel bars. Reflective markers (14mm) and ten high-speed cameras (ViconT40S,100Hz) were used to observe the time history of attached markers on the parallel bars and subjects. The coordinates of the necessary markers were calculated using ViconT40S digitizing software. The stiffness coefficient of the shoulder joints (KS=31667.5N.m-1) were estimated through the model. The reaction on the Humeral head (RS=194.45N) at the vertical position of under the bars is very much lower than the other places. This implied shoulders at the bottom of the motion should be flexible and soft.

KEYWORDS:stiffness of shoulder, Belle movement, Humeral head, parallel bars.