Document Type



This study aimed to compare the shot performance and kinematics of the cue stick in top spin shots between less-skilled and skilled players. Twenty-five cue sports players were recruited and assigned to the less-skilled (n = 12) or skilled (n = 13) groups. Ten successful top spin trials were recorded for each participant. 2D video analysis was employed to evaluate shot performance which was represented by an error distance. A 3D motion capture system was used to obtain kinematic data of the cue stick during the cueing movement. The results showed that skilled players were more consistent in their performance with lower inter-trial variability than less-skilled players (p = 0.028). No significant differences between two groups were found in the cue stick kinematics including height (p = 0.723), speed (p = 0.153), and angle (p = 0.380). The results indicated that similar cueing techniques were adopted by all participants. Further analysis of human body kinematics is in need to uncover potential technique differences among players despite achieving similar cueing movements.