Racquet Sports

Document Type



The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of the upper arm definition on shoulder and elbow kinematics during the badminton smash. A method was proposed that corrects the false external rotation when using the shoulder-elbow-wrist plane based on the carrying angle (ISB-2C) and compared to ISB recommendations for defining the upper arm (ISB-1 and ISB-2). Differences were found in shoulder and elbow kinematics, in particular angular velocities. Both magnitude and the time history of the angular velocity were affected. In particular, use of the medial and lateral epicondyles was unable to detect a reasonable signal for pronation/supination. ISB-2C reduces some of the problems associated with ISB-1 and ISB-2 e.g. soft-tissue artifact, proximity of medial and lateral epicondyles to the humeral longitudinal axis and false external rotation caused by the carrying angle.