Stick/club/racquet sports

Document Type



This study aimed to explore the key factors that could influence the cue tip speed in a break shot in 9-ball. Nineteen male cue sports players at various skill levels were recruited. Each participant performed 8 break shots with maximum effort while the kinematic data were collected for the upper body joints and cue stick using a 3D motion capture system. Multiple linear regression was performed to predict the cue tip speed at impact based on selected kinematic variables of the cue-wielding arm. The results showed that the humeral elevation ROM was the only significant predictor for predicting the cue tip speed at impact (p = 0.007), while the ROM of elbow flexion/extension and wrist abduction/adduction, or peak angular velocities were not significant predictors (all p > 0.05). The cue tip speed decreased as the humeral elevation range of motion (ROM) increased. In conclusion, cue sports players were recommended to limit their humeral elevation ROM in a break shot to maximise cue tip speed for separating the racked object balls.