Motor Control

Document Type



Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of four weeks of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and foot core exercise (FCE) on the foot sensorimotor function (i.e., toe flexor strength and passive ankle kinesthesia). Methods: Thirty-six participants were randomly assigned into three groups: HD-tDCS, FCE, and control group. A total of 12 training sessions was performed over 4 weeks (i.e., three sessions per week) in the laboratory. The participants in the HD-tDCS group performed HD-tDCS and the FCE group completed short foot exercise, towel curls, toe spread and squeeze, and balance board training. Foot muscle strength and passive ankle kinesthesia were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results: Compared with the control group, HD-tDCS induced a greater decrease in percent change in the passive kinesthesia thresholds of dorsiflexion ( 9.32%), inversion ( 25.15%), and eversion ( 21.46%). A significantly higher increase in percent change in metatarsophalangeal joint flexor strength was existed in HD-tDCS group (13.77%) and a significantly greater increase in percent change in toe flexor strength was observed in the FCE group (13.13%). Conclusion: Four weeks of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) can improve foot sensorimotor function and foot core exercise can only strengthen toe flexor muscles.