Modelling / Simulation

Document Type



To investigate the variability in hamstring muscle function, multiple running strides were simulated across a range of running speeds (4 - 9 m/s) using a forward dynamics musculoskeletal model solved using direct collocation (OpenSim Moco). Peak biceps femoris muscle load (force, length, velocity, and power) occurred during the late swing phase, showing variable muscle load across all running speeds. As running speed increased, the time of peak force was consistent at approximately 85% of swing but became less variable in its timing (45 ms [4 m/s] vs 5 ms [9 m/s]). At maximal running speed small changes in variability can result in large changes to muscle function, creating a greater risk of injury and may provide further insight into hamstring strain injuries.

New Investigator Award