Document Type



A proximal-to-distal sequence (PDS) in baseball pitching is theorized to be more efficient and can reduce upper limb joint loads. However, studies investigating PDS using timing of peak segment angular velocity magnitude did not identify the use of “full” PDS from pelvis to hand. This study investigated PDS by comparing the timings of peak angular velocities about each global axis for the pelvis, trunk, upper arm, forearm, and hand during fastballs thrown by professional pitchers (n=4). We found that pitchers demonstrated full PDS about the global left axis (from pitching mound to first base) in 67-100% of their trials, depending on the pitcher. No pitcher demonstrated full PDS about the other two global axes. Similar to prior studies, we also did not observe full PDS when using angular velocity magnitude. This could be explained by differences in body segment rotation sequences between global axes. We also preliminarily uncovered impacts of filtering on the kinematic sequence detected. Analyzing 3D angular velocities with carefully selected filters may advance our understanding of the dynamics of pitching.

New Investigator Award