Stick/club/racquet sports

Document Type



This study compared muscle activation patterns during the forehand stroke among thirteen nonprofessional tennis players across three grip positions [Eastern(4), Semi Western(6), Western(3)]. Surface electromyography was used to assess fourteen trunk and dominant upper arm muscles, while hitting forehand crosscourt shots using their preferred grip. Individuals using Semi Western grip demonstrated higher activation of proximal musculature responsible for horizontal flexion/internal rotation at the shoulder (Pectoralis), whereas those using Eastern grip had higher activation in distal musculature (FCU, ECR), acting primarily to control flexion/extension. These differences suggest the Eastern grip requires less axial rotation of the arm but more contribution of wrist flexor/extensors than Semi Western/Western grips, which may relate to grip-specific repetitive strain injuries.