Modelling / Simulation

Document Type



This study investigated how accurately ground reaction forces (GRFs) can be estimated from body centre of mass (BCOM) motion derived using markerless motion capture. Fifteen participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) on, and a running trial across, force plates. Kinematics captured using markerless and marker-based systems were used to drive IK-constrained OpenSim models. The resulting BCOM displacements were double differentiated to inversely estimate GRFs and compared to force plate data. Markerless-derived estimates were similar to measured GRFs (RMSD = ~70-150 N) and vertical peak force, impulse and rate of force development were also accurately estimated (effect sizes < 0.2), similarly to marker-based outputs. Our markerless workflow shows promise for the estimation of vertical GRF parameters out in the field, without markers or force plates.